Replication is an important feature of a robust database management
system. In Derby, you
start database replication by using connection URL attributes.
The replication capability of
Derby has the following
- One master, one slave: A replicated database resides in two locations
and is managed by two different
Derby instances. One of these
Derby instances has the
master role for this database, and the other has the slave role.
Typically, the master and slave run on different nodes, but this is not a
requirement. Together, the master and its associated slave represent a
- Roll-forward shipped log: Replication is based on shipping the
Derby transaction log from
the master to the slave, and then rolling forward the operations described in
the log to the slave database.
- Asymmetry: Only the master processes transactions. The slave
processes no transactions, not even read operations.
- Asynchronicity: Transactions are committed on the master without
waiting for the slave. The shipping of the transaction log to the slave is
performed regularly, and is completely decoupled from the transaction execution
at the master. This may lead to a few lost transactions if the master crashes.
- Shared nothing: Apart from the network line, no hardware is assumed to be
- Replication granularity: The granularity for replication is exactly
one database. However, one
Derby instance may have
different roles for different databases. For example, one
Derby instance may have the
following roles, all at the same time:
- The master role for one database D1 replicated to one node
- The slave role for a database D2 replicated from another node
- The normal, non-replicated, role for a database D3
Replication builds on
Derby's ability to recover
from a crash by starting with a backup and rolling forward
Derby's transaction log
files. The master sends log records to the slave using a network connection. The
slave then writes these log records to its local log and redoes them.
If the master fails, the slave completes the recovery by redoing the log that
has not already been processed. The state of the slave after this recovery is
close to the state the master had when it crashed. However, some of the last
transactions performed on the master may not have been sent to the slave and may
therefore not be reflected. When the slave has completed the recovery work, it
is transformed into a normal
Derby instance that is ready
to process transactions. For more details, see
Forcing a failover and
Replication and security.
Several Derby properties allow you to specify the size of the replication
log buffers and the intervals between log shipments, as well as whether
replication messages are logged. See
Tuning Derby for details.
You can perform replication on a database that runs in either embedded mode
or Network Server mode.