Deadlock detection

When a transaction waits more than a specific amount of time to obtain a lock (called the deadlock timeout), Derby can detect whether the transaction is involved in a deadlock.

When Derby analyzes such a situation for deadlocks it tries to determine how many transactions are involved in the deadlock (two or more). Usually aborting one transaction breaks the deadlock. Derby must pick one transaction as the victim and abort that transaction; it picks the transaction that holds the fewest number of locks as the victim, on the assumption that transaction has performed the least amount of work. (This may not be the case, however; the transaction might have recently been escalated from row-level locking to table locking and thus hold a small number of locks even though it has done the most work.)

When Derby aborts the victim transaction, it receives a deadlock error (an SQLException with an SQLState of 40001). The error message gives you the transaction IDs, the statements, and the status of locks involved in a deadlock situation.

ERROR 40001: A lock could not be obtained due to a deadlock,
cycle of locks & waiters is:
Lock : ROW, DEPARTMENT, (1,14)
Waiting XID : {752, X} , APP, update department set location='Boise'
	where deptno='E21'
Granted XID : {758, X} Lock : ROW, EMPLOYEE, (2,8)
Waiting XID : {758, U} , APP, update employee set bonus=150 where salary=23840
Granted XID : {752, X} The selected victim is XID : 752

For information on configuring when deadlock checking occurs, see Configuring deadlock detection and lock wait timeouts.

Note: Deadlocks are detected only within a single database. Deadlocks across multiple databases are not detected. Non-database deadlocks caused by Java synchronization primitives are not detected by Derby.
Related concepts
Avoiding deadlocks
Lock wait timeouts
Configuring deadlock detection and lock wait timeouts
Debugging Deadlocks
Programming applications to handle deadlocks